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In 1869 William Mc Dougall, sent out as first Canadian lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories, carried instructions to organize a police force under Captain D. In May that year, Parliament passed an Act establishing a force, and 150 recruits were sent west that August to spend the winter at Fort Garry (what is now Winnipeg). The new police force, which gradually acquired the name North-West Mounted Police (NWMP), was organized along the lines of a cavalry regiment and armed with pistols, carbines (small, short-barreled rifles) and a few small artillery pieces.

The British government had some experience with centralized police forces in India and Ireland, however, and the forces there were unquestionably effective. Macdonald therefore adopted the Royal Irish Constabulary as the model for Canada. The plans had to be shelved when the Red River Rebellion of 1869-70 led to the creation of the province of Manitoba in the southern corner of the Territories.The Hudson's Bay Company had ruled this frontier (what is today northern Quebec and Ontario, all of Manitoba, and parts of Saskatchewan, Alberta and the northern territories) for almost two centuries without serious friction between fur traders and the Indigenous population.There were few traders, and their livelihood depended on economic co-operation with the Indigenous people.A Royal Commission on Security was appointed in 1966 as a result of these cases.The commission's 1968 recommendation that a civilian intelligence agency replace the RCMP was rejected by the new Liberal prime minister, By 1969, the rise of separatism in Québec had produced a major shift in security and intelligence operations, from a focus on foreign threats to a perceived threat within the country.The RCMP is Canada’s national police force – providing an array of services from municipal policing, to national security intelligence gathering, to the legendary Musical Ride.Despite a series of scandals in recent decades, the RCMP remains one of Canada's most iconic national institutions.Today the course for new cadets is six months in length, is offered in both official languages, and includes a variety of subjects from basic criminal law to driving and shooting, fitness, and police tactics.Depot Division also gives courses for fisheries enforcement officers, correctional services personnel, native special constables and tribal police, other regulatory and law enforcement agencies.The police for the North-West Territories were to be a temporary organization. Under the British North America Act, law enforcement was a provincial not a federal responsibility.They would maintain order through the difficult early years of settlement, then, having served their purpose, they would disappear. Nothing further happened until 1873, when Ottawa, as part of plans to administer the North-West Territories, revived the idea of a federal police force.