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The Commission’s reporting year, which covers the period from fall 2012 to fall 2013, began with some potentially hopeful signs.Statements starting in late 2012 by President Xi, Premier Li, and other top leaders pledged to crack down on corruption and rein in official abuses, promised major reforms to the abusive systems of reeducation through labor and household registration, and sug­gested an openness to giving greater authority to China’s Constitu­tion.Pro-reform editorials and dis­cussions on the Internet were censored.Citizens who sought infor­mation about the government’s human rights action plan and the submission to the UN Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review of China’s human rights record scheduled for October 2013 faced harassment, detention, and arrest.The extent to which the Chinese government is transparent, respects its international trading obligations, and protects Chinese citizens’ human rights affects the safety and quality of goods imported from China, and the ability of American workers and companies to com­pete on a level playing field.This connection between China’s domestic commercial rule of law and human rights developments and the health and economic pros­perity of Americans as a result of trade is evident in many con­texts.China is the United States’ second largest trading partner, and ex­ports a large and growing volume of food, drugs, and products to the United States. China continues to be the world’s largest producer of carbon dioxide emissions, while food continues to be grown in areas of China contaminated by water and soil pollution.In addition, pollutants originating in China, such as mercury and ozone, are reaching the United States.

执行摘要 (Chinese Translation of Executive Summary) 概览 具体调查结果和建议 II. Official rhetoric at the start of their tenure suggested openness to reforms and limits on the power of officials, sparking public discussion across China.9, which sought to (1) marginalize and silence calls for constitutional checks, anticorruption, universal human rights, and press freedom as the products of ‘‘Western anti-China forces’’ and dissidents, rather than treat them as the legitimate concerns of China’s own citizens and an obligation under China’s commitments to international stand­ards such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.By Sep­tember 2013, authorities had detained, arrested, or ‘‘disappeared’’ nearly 60 individuals in an ensuing crackdown on free expression, assembly, and association, including the prominent rights advo­cates Xu Zhiyong and Guo Feixiong.Whether buoyed by statements from China’s new leaders or the possibilities accompanying a transition of power, citizens from diverse sectors of society, from elements within the Party to individuals affiliated with the grassroots New Citizens’ Movement, sought to engage in public discussion over China’s fu­ture.They urged their government to give greater force to the Con­stitution as a check on official behavior, make good on its promise to combat corruption by requiring officials to disclose their assets, and ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which China signed in 1998.To that end, the Commission provides the following main recommendations to Members of the U. Congress and Administration officials outlining ways to en­courage such reforms.MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).Citizens clamored for more in­formation about the safety of their environment and food, but au­thorities deemed soil pollution data a ‘‘state secret.’’ Corruption was a top concern for many in China, but authorities detained anticorruption advocates and censored foreign news stories about the finances of China’s leaders and their families.Despite dozens more self-immolations in Tibetan areas of China and some of the worst unrest in Xinjiang since 2009, Chinese officials continued to rely on heavier security and tighter control instead of dialogue and reconciliation.New and revised laws that took effect, including the PRC Criminal Procedure Law and the PRC Mental Health Law, con­tained significant flaws but also had the potential to improve pro­tection of citizens’ rights.China’s relatively open response to an outbreak of avian flu in early 2013 stood in marked contrast to its poor handling of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) crisis 10 years earlier, a point highlighted at a Commission hearing held in May 2013.