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22 Nov

(Nature's Images) when rainfall is abundant, the tree uses its energy to produce new growth cells.

The newest cells generated are the largest of the annual layer.

In dendrochronology, the most serious limitation is that more variables affect tree growth and health than just moisture availability.

Tree growth itself is very complex, as is interaction with the surrounding environment.

The new layer of wood grows from the cambium layer between the old wood and the bark.

During new spring growth Each year a tree adds a new ring, enabling scientists to determine the age of trees.

Douglass was the first to realize that the wide rings of certain species of trees were produced during years with ample rainfall and favorable growing conditions.

Patterns in the width, wood density, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of tree rings can be used to estimate temperature.

The tree remains dormant during the cold winter months.

It is the contrast between the smaller old cells and the following spring's larger new cells that creates the visible boundary that is referred to as a ring.

Samples are usually taken from trees with a long slender boring tool without harming the tree.

This technique has allowed scientists to establish some bristlecone pine chronologies in North America that This is a bristlecone pine in the White Mountains of California.