Uranium series dating rock art in east timor

04 Sep

But we are left with the question of how Austronesians were able to rapidly switch from grain to root and arboreal crops.

Blench (2012) has suggested that the Austronesians did not make the switch as they were not farmers in the first place, but rather acquired their carbohydrate staples through trading with resident horticulturalists who were already exploiting root and tree crops.

The researchers questioning an agriculturally-driven expansion and package of traits have also proposed a number of alternate visions of “a Neolithic” or “Neolithics” for the archipelago.

These have included an emphasis on advanced maritime capacity as the facilitator, if not the driver, of the migration from Taiwan (Anderson 2005; Blench 2012; Bulbeck 2008), and a charismatic ideology for accomplishing the rapidity and reach of Austronesian colonisation (Blench 2012; Spriggs 2011).

For Sulawesi a research visa 315 (278/SIP/FRP/SM/VII/2013) was granted by RISTEK, Jakarta.

Noel Tan kindly assisted me with tracking down images for the Philippines art sites.

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2014: 750), but it is unclear at what phase during the sites occupation this clearance took place.The pollen record at Minanga Sipakko suggests that clearance occurred only in the final phase of the site’s occupation.Sparse remains of the candlenut were found in the early Neolithic levels, but this species is common in pre-pottery assemblages throughout ISEA and may have been collected from wild groves (Simanjuntak et al. If we are dealing with Neolithic rice farmers in Sarawak and northern Luzon, Bellwood (1997, 2005: 130), Paz (2002, 2005: 114) and Mijares (2007) have pointed out that tubers and tree crops would have become increasingly important as Austronesians moved south and east through the archipelago, due to the unsuitability of the climate in the equatorial zone for cereals.sp.) at Uai Bobo 2 in Timor-Leste in layers dated between approximately 17,000 – 14,000 cal. This specimen was only assigned a “probable” identification but even if identification was verified, its small size, uncharred condition and good state of preservation raise questions about whether this find was or was vertically displaced.It is known that this cereal is edible and it is possible that it may have been more widely used in the past than it is today; however, its presence in Timor at this early date begs caution.For example, Blench (2012: 144) has recently discussed the archaeological and linguistic evidence and suggested that the term fisher-forager-traders more accurately sums up the enterprise of the Austronesian expansion.Bulbeck (2008: 32) goes as far as to suggest that the early Austronesians were “terrestrially challenged.” He suggests that rather than farming, adaptability, high-level maritime skills, the ability to exploit maritime environments and trade, were the key components of successful Austronesian expansion throughout ISEA.The fieldwork and radiocarbon dates for Timor-Leste were funded by ARC DP0556210.Excavation at Gua Mo’o hono in Sulawesi was funded by ARC DP110101357.I follow Bulbeck (2008: 32) in using the term Neolithic within the context of ISEA for “assemblages with pottery or polished stone tools which pre-date Almost every paper that critiques the Neolithic in ISEA concludes that there is precious little evidence for agriculture in the earliest pottery-bearing assemblages, but for the sake of completeness and to highlight the variability across the region I will discuss what little there is.There is evidence for rice at Andarayan in the Cagayan Valley, northern Luzon in the form of carbonised inclusions of rice husks and stem parts in earthenware vessels (Snow et al. One grain has been directly dated to 3400 ± 125 BP (3933–3380 cal. Rice has also been found in Sarawak at Gua Sireh cave in a sherd and dated to 3850 ± 260 BP (4891–3563 cal.